Mamie Gevena Doud Eisenhower (1896-1979) brought years of social experience as the wife of a career military officer to her role as First Lady. She restored grand style of entertaining to the White House and reinvigorated Washington social life after decades of curtailed entertainment due to two World Wars, the Great Depression, and the Truman renovation of the White House. In public, she epitomized the postwar ideal of traditional femininity--a supportive wife who immersed herself in her husband's life and in raising a family. But, behind the scenes, White House staffers said she had "a spine of steel." Mamie's evident enjoyment and visibility in the campaigns of the 1950s, and her genuine appeal to women voters, helped secure the elections for Ike, and institutionalized the First Lady's role as campaigner.
Dwight D. Eisenhower, Thirty-fourth President, 1953-61
Dwight D. Eisenhower's success in the European Theater of Operations during World War II led to his appointment as Supreme Allied Commander in Europe--the organizer of the D-Day invasion of Normandy that helped bring about Germany's surrender. When the genial war hero ran for president on a promise to end the Korean War, the voting public made it clear that they did, in fact, like Ike. The eight years Eisenhower spent in office were for the most part calm,prosperous years for the country, with the healthiest economy since the 1920s. But there were volatile issues for the president to deal with, as well. Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin, was so intent on ferreting out supposed communists within the State Department that he ruined the careers of many innocent people. The president also had to handle intensifying civil rights issues, such as the South's defiant reaction to the Supreme Court-ordered desegregation of schools, causing him to send federal troops to escort the African American students to school. The space race began on Eisenhower's watch when the Soviet Union beat America into space with Sputnik I, the first satellite into space. In order to bring the American space program up to speed, the president approved a new congressional program to bring talented young scientists into the field of space technology.
Just Like the Lady Next Door--Mamie Eisenhower
The image of Mamie Eisenhower as First Lady was that of the ideal 1950's woman. She was feminine and traditional, and the public loved her for it. Mrs. Eisenhower once said she was "perfectly satisfied to be known as a housewife."
Yet she had never been a typical housewife. In fact, having come from a wealthy family, she had never learned to cook. However, she had skillfully supervised the entertaining during many years as the wife of an army officer. Still, her warmth and pleasant manner endeared her to millions.
Mamie was very much perceived as one of the people. She also had a way of making each person feel that he or she was being greeted individually as they went through receiving lines, or as Mamie wrote back to answer their letters.
Mamie Eisenhower was a First Lady Americans could relate to. Her life revolved around her home and her husband. However, she was not without a will of her own. As Head Usher of the White House once noted: "She knew exactly what she wanted ... exactly how it should be done. And she could give orders, staccato-crisp, detailed and final, as is it were she who had been the five star general."
Mamie livened up post-War Washington with her personal flair and enthusiastic entertaining. Although many Americans liked Ike, everybody loved Mamie.
She revitalized the whole social life of Washington, DC, which had been somewhat meager for several decades before that due to the Depression, World War II, and the renovation of the White House by the Trumans. Mamie reintroduced formal entertaining in grand style when she came in to the White House.
Women and Politics in the 1950s
The 1950s marked a turning point in the relationship between women and political parties. By the postwar election of 1952, women had become accustomed to their role as voters and now constituted half of the voting electorate. Of the 61.2 million people casting ballots in 1952, 30.9 million were men and 30.3 million were women.
The major political parties had to determine how to capture their ballots. The Republican Party made a particularly concerted effort. Led by Ivy Baker Priest, the assistant chair of the Republican National Committee and head of the party's women's division, the Republicans aimed a strong awareness campaign at women voters. Focusing on the fifties themes of women's return to the home and the solidarity of the family as a bulwark against communism, Republicans successfully translated their campaign issues into concepts that appealed to American women.
Domestic images were potent because the American public craved stability after the economic chaos of the Depression and the devastation of World War II. The return to normal living was symbolized by an emphasis on the home, the traditional family, and traditional, feminine, supportive roles for women. In a political climate increasingly shaped by the emergence of the Cold War and anticommunist rhetoric, the American family became a symbol of the goodness of democracy and capitalism.
The Democratic Party was less adept at using those themes to appeal to women. Despite the decision to sponsor a ladies' day at the convention in 1952, the party's women's division seems not to have undertaken a voting appeal to women comparable to the Republicans'. Indeed, the Democrats produced surprisingly little campaign material of any kind for the 1952 election when compared with the Republicans' tremendous output. Instead, the party stressed the integration of women into the political mainstream and, unlike the 1948 campaign, chose not to highlight women's issues as separate from those of interest to men.
In addition to their determination to capture women's votes, the Republicans had other advantages. In Eisenhower and Nixon they had the perfect candidates for the times. Ike and Dick, as they were often called, could be presented as the warrior hero, defender of the free world against its military foes, and the man who had built a reputation for defending the country against the subversion of communism. They also had the perfect presidential and vice presidential spouses, presented as the quintessentially supportive helpmates that the era extolled. Both families were active and highly visible during the campaign, making the opposition appear weak on issues central to the fight, while highlighting the family of strength and solidarity of their own candidates. The Democratic nominee, Adlai Stevenson, was divorced, which in itself was a political liability in the fifties. Perhaps more significant, however, his marital status deprived the Democrats of the opportunity to capitalize on issues surrounding the family, a major social theme of the era.
True to their capitalist ideology and affiliations, the Republican advisors and analysts drew heavily from their market-research and advertising backgrounds to formulate the approach to the campaign. They were able to translate the issues that the Women's Division wanted to emphasize into mass-produced and mass-marketed commodities for consumption. What better way to appeal to the housewife, who was being urged back into her role as consumer? In such a climate the issues of the fifties could be sold to the electorate in female terms.
Republican pamphlets and leaflets, created by the Women's Division for women party workers, were widely circulated. One leaflet urged women to be a "Party Girl," a double entendre that encouraged them to work for the party while capturing the mindless, unthreatening, "fun-time girl" ideal of the fifties. Fit for kitchen and bedroom, and probably smart enough to stuff envelopes and dial phones, the Party Girl was certainly incapable of an independent thought. Properly reticent and unassertive, she had to be taught and urged to do everything. Republican literature always pictured women in supportive roles, in submissive postures, receiving explicitly detailed instructions from men or from the party on every subject. Pamphlets urged women party workers to conduct highly organized telephoning, radio, and television parties. And they responded. The strength of women's political organizations at the grass-roots level was startling.
The Republicans made effective use of these ardent amateurs--the local precinct workers, who were the largest group of women in political activity at the time. These women, who then outnumbered men in political volunteer work, staged political get-togethers, phone-calling parties, and television sessions. The Republicans knew their constituency. Campaign issues were presented as appeals to the little woman, picturing the American family as typically middle or upper-middle class, white, suburban, with a husband working outside the home for wages and a wife who remained at home with plenty of time for the PTA and volunteer work. Women's so-called "flexible domestic schedule" meant they had time for phoning, canvassing, meetings, tea parties, driving voters to the polls, and staffing the polls themselves.
The familiar buttons with the picture of the candidate's wife, Mamie, were again circulated, though to a degree previously undreamed of. The wife of the vice presidential candidate, Pat Nixon, appeared on campaign buttons for the first time in 1952 and was highly popularized. Mamie Eisenhower thoroughly enjoyed the role of political campaigner that she was thrust into in 1952 and left her personal stamp on her husband's campaign. Relatively unknown at the start of the campaign, she was an important image.
A public that craved stability after World War II could not have asked for better symbols than Mamie and Pat to emphasize the traditional home and family. The candidates' devotion to their families was reflected in their wives' adoring regard, Mamie's admiring and supportive looks at Ike during televised interviews and Pat Nixon's appearances with her daughters and pet dog, Checkers. Photos of Ike and Mamie (with her in pajamas) on the back of the whistle-stop train became a campaign classic. Nixon wrapped himself in family sanctity and sympathy in a dramatic television speech by invoking Checkers as a ploy to refute charges that he had misused campaign funds.
The more visible presence of the candidates' wives in this campaign did not, however, signal a departure from traditional ideas about women's roles. In both presidential elections in the fifties, campaign devices and images of women conveyed time-honored ideals of home and family. Objects with a feminine appeal were circulated in enormous quantities by Republicans in 1952. Many household items such as plates, cup and saucer sets, salt and pepper shakers, bud vases, pitchers, cream and sugar sets, and cast-iron trivets survive today, as does campaign jewelry in the form of necklaces, bracelets, earring, and pins, all bearing the likeness of the candidate of "I Like Ike" in dangling rhinestones. There were Republican emery boards, napkins, mirrors, combs, thimbles, and fans.
Though the silk scarves of 1888 foreshadowed an appeal to women through wearing apparel, they pale in comparison with the apparel appeal of the 1952 campaign. The well-dressed Party Girl would not leave home without wearing her "I Like Ike" blouse or dress (with full circle skirt, of course), her Republican umbrella, "Ike and Dick" sunglasses, complemented with the "I Like Ike" corsage and nylon stockings proclaiming to the world on both calves, "I Like Ike!" And what fashionable Republican woman would dare venture forth without her "I Like Ike" compact, in the configuration of a telephone dial, and her G.O.P. perfume, "For the Scent of Victory"?
The Republicans took political campaigning with a woman's slant a step beyond domestic objects and wearing apparel. Three major Republican themes were the Korean War, corruption (or "the mess in Washington," as it was called), and a balanced budget. The Republicans cleverly managed to find a particularly feminine angle for each of them. The Korean War was pictured as involving a son or husband. A campaign comic book published by the Republican National Committee graphically portrayed a woman whose son was being shot at in Korea and a sweetheart whose boyfriend would be unable to make it to their wedding because the war had intervened. Ike had promised to end the war and bring the boys home. Women were told that since Ike was a brilliant military hero and knew firsthand the horrors of war, he had not only the know-how but the incentive to make that a reality. Women obviously believed it. According to pollster Louis Harris, "Women ... were more disturbed about the Korean War than men in 1952. In fact, there is evidence to indicate that women were among the real prime movers in making the Korean War a major and decisive influence in the final outcome of the election."
The problem of the balanced budget was also translated into the language of the average housewife--it was equated with her balancing of the family budget. The implication was clear: if she could do it, so could the government. A brochure displaying a housewife on the cover asked women, "How much did your groceries cost you today?" It explained the rise in prices and the high cost of living by declaring the "waste, corruption, extravagance, blunders, bungling, bureaucrats, and taxes are hidden in your grocery bag." Following the theme to its logical conclusion, Republicans circulated extra-large "Ike and Dick" shopping bags--no doubt to show the housewife just how much she could buy if Ike were elected.
The mess in Washington was translated from an unintelligible bureaucratic problem into a simple matter that housewives could readily understand. Cleaning up the mess in Washington was portrayed in terms of a housewife cleaning up her home. Red, white, and blue scrub pails with the slogan "Let's clean up with Eisenhower and Nixon" and large "Ike and Dick" brooms, as well as broom pins, were widely distributed. Women were urged to help Ike, "a thrifty housekeeper," to "sweep out the mess."
Pollster Louis Harris pointed out that this appeal was not by any means lost on women voters. Pressures on the family budget to buy more than there was money for fell largely on women. "This was a crucial fact in the 1952 elections. Women lost faith in the Democratic Party to help them financially. Polls show … women thought there was more likelihood of the Republicans keeping prices in line than the Democrats. … Women more significantly than men felt the Republican Party would bring them economic security."
The Republican effort to capture the women's vote in 1952 was not without results at the polls. Earl Kruschke, after conducting polls in Michigan and studying polls of others in the 1952 election, concluded that women voted for Eisenhower in greater percentages than men (52 percent of men and 58 percent of women) and contributed significantly to this victory. Harris substantially agrees. In Kruschke's samplings, all the women interviewed who voted for Eisenhower mentioned one of the three "women's appeals" as their reason for voting Republican.
In many respects, the election of 1956 was a replay of the campaign of 1952. The Republicans again ran Eisenhower and Nixon, and the Democrats once more fielded Adlai Stevenson. The Democrats shifted their vice presidential candidate to Estes Kefauver, who had gained fame and popularity by conducting anticrime and racketeering hearings. As the menace of "godless communism" and the threat of nuclear war with the Soviet Union alarmed the public (recall the chilling "duck and cover" drills practiced in schools to "save" children from atomic attack), the social themes of family and religion were combined and emphasized. Religion--not a denominational variety--was the bland amorphous "church of your choice." But family and religion continued as bulwarks against the communist threat. "The family that prays together, stays together" was a much-touted aphorism of the fifties.
The Republicans continued to capitalize on both themes: Ike and Dick were presented as religious, God-fearing men, while Adlai Stevenson was a Unitarian. (Wasn't that something like an atheist?) The Republicans circulated many of the items produced in 1952 but added campaign fliers entitled, "Ike and Dick, All American Partners," with prominent photos of Mamie and Pat; "This is the man, this is his family," a photo of Ike and Mamie looking at him adoringly; and a campaign advertisement urging, "For you, your family, your future--vote Republican." The Republican candidates and their wives seemed wholesome and traditional, appealing to the need for personal and national security.
The Democrats directed few items at women in 1956, but they did schedule Women's Day at the party's nominating convention. It featured Eleanor Roosevelt, Katie Loucheim (vice chair and director of the Women's Division), and seven Democratic congresswomen as speakers. The congresswomen, scheduled in the afternoon to attract housewives who watched television, were cut off by the networks.
[From Keith Melder, "Hail to the Candidate: Presidential Campaigns from Banners to Broadcasts," (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992) 152-157].
"I Like Ike," Dwight D. Eisenhower campaign song
"I Like Ike" from the recording entitled Presidential Campaign Songs 1789-1996, Folkways 45051, provided courtesy of Smithsonian Folkways Recordings. © 1999. Used by permission.
Words and music: Irving Berlin/Irving Berlin Music Corp., ASCAP
Both major parties offered their nomination for the presidency to Eisenhower, who had been the Supreme Allied commander of World War II and Supreme Commander of NATO. He refused until 1952 when the Republicans drafted him. Irving Berlin’s rousing hit for the 1950 musical "Call Me Madam" made a perfect campaign song for both terms.
"I Like Ike
I’ll shout it over a mike
Or a phone
Or from the highest steeple
I Like Ike
And Ike is easy to like
The choice of we the people …"