Making Type by Hand
To create type by hand, the typefounder files and engraves the end of each steel bar (called a "punch") to the shape of the desired character. Once completed, the punches are hardened and tempered, then struck with a hammer into soft copper (called a "matrix"), leaving a sunken impression of the character. Molten type metal is then poured into the mold, where it solidifies almost instantly, creating an exact replica of the character. After some filing and finishing work, the individual characters are ready to be used for printing.
There are four basic kinds of printing: relief, gravure, stencil, and lithographic printing.
Relief (letterpress) printing means printing from a block on which the image is raised. Relief blocks are inked with rollers and printed on platen presses, or by rubbing paper face down on the back with the back of a spoon. Examples of this type of printing include woodcut, wood engraving, linoleum cut, halftone, and finger printing.
Intaglio (gravure) printing means printing from a plate in which the image is depressed (as opposed to raised as in relief printing). Intaglio plates are entirely covered with ink; then the surplus is wiped off the surface. The ink remains in the grooves of the design. The plates are printed on a cylinder press with sufficient pressure to force paper into the grooves to receive the ink. Examples include etching, aquatint, mezzotint, line engraving, dry point, photogravure, and woodbury type.
Stencil printing means printing from a screen on which the image is permeable to printing ink and the rest of the screen is impermeable. The ink is forced through the screen to the paper beneath. No press is used. Examples include silk-screening, serigraphy, and pochoir.
Lithographic (planographic) printing means printing from a flat unbroken surface treated so that only the image areas will accept ink. The form is inked with a roller and printed on a cylinder or a scraper press. Examples include lithography, offset, collotype, and photolithography.
Prior to 1870, the United States Patent Office required applicants to submit a model of the invention. Originally displayed in the Patent Office building as a monument to American ingenuity, thousands of these models were eventually transferred to the Smithsonian Institution to help illustrate the history of invention.
United States Patent and Trademark Office
(Excerpted from "General Information Concerning Patents" print brochure)
Congress established the United States Patent and Trademark Office to issue patents on behalf of the Government. The Patent and Trademark Office as a distinct bureau may be said to date from the year 1802 when a separate official in the Department of State who became known as "Superintendent of Patents" was placed in charge of patents. The revision of the patent laws enacted in 1836 reorganized the Patent and Trademark Office and designated the official in charge as Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks. The Patent and Trademark Office remained in the Department of State until 1849 when it was transferred to the Department of Interior. In 1925 it was transferred to the Department of Commerce where it is today.
The Patent and Trademark Office administers the patent laws as they relate to the granting of patents for inventions, and performs other duties relating to patents. It examines applications for patents to determine if the applicants are entitled to patents under the law and grants the patents when they are so entitled; it publishes issued patents and various publications concerning patents, records assignments of patents, maintains a search room for the use of the public to examine issued patents and records, supplies copies of records and other papers,and the like. Similar functions are performed with respect to the registration of trademarks. The Patent and Trademark Office has no jurisdiction over questions of infringement and the enforcement of patents, nor over matters relating to the promotion or utilization of patents or inventions.
The head of the Office is the Assistant Secretary of Commerce and Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks, and his staff includes the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Commerce and Deputy Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks, several assistant commissioners, and other officials. As head of the Office, the Commissioner superintends or performs all duties respecting the granting and issuing of patents and the registration of trademarks; exercises general supervision over the entire work of the Patent and Trademark Office; prescribes the rules, subject to the approval of the Secretary of Commerce, for the conduct of proceedings in the Patent and Trademark Office, and for recognition of attorneys and agents; decides various questions brought before him by petition as prescribed by the rules; and performs other duties necessary and required for the administration of the Patent and Trademark Office.
The work of examining applications for patents is divided among a number of examining groups, each group having jurisdiction over certain assigned fields of technology. Each group is headed by a group director and staffed by examiners. The examiners review applications for patents and determine whether patents can be granted. An appeal can be taken to the Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences from their decisions refusing to grant a patent, and a review by the Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks may be had on other matters by petition. The examiners also identify applications that claim the same invention and initiate proceedings, known as interferences, to determine who was the first inventor.
In addition to the examining groups, other offices perform various services, such as receiving and distributing mail, receiving new applications, handling sales of printed copies of patents, making copies of records, inspecting drawings, and recording assignments. At present, the Patent and Trademark Office has about 5,700 employees, of whom about half are examiners and others with technical and legal training. Patent applications are received at the rate of over 200,000 per year. The Patent and Trademark Office receives over five million pieces of mail each year.
Link to non-Smithsonian Web site